Who (these are real people)
Inventors and Authors on patents, scholarly publications, blogs, grant proposals, business plans, etc; humans who lead initiatives or have key responsibilities.
Which (legal entity, not a person, with apologies to Mitt Romney)
Assignees/owners/ affiliates/ subsidiaries, institutions. Generally incorporated companies, whether for-profit or non-profit.
The subject matter: Title/Abstract/ Specification (Teachings), Claims (Legal Limits), the science, business and regulation of the innovation area.
Timeline of inventions, of discoveries, of rights and responsibilities.
Institution of work, country and region of invention, jurisdiction of patent, geography of market.
Ahh.. the big one: The innovation trajectory! what is the jigsaw puzzle (solution set) to which this piece contributes?